GEOG 3700


1. Brunkard, J., Namulanda, G. and Ratard R. 2008. Hurricane Katrina deaths, Louisiana, 2005. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, pp.1-9.

2. Morris BA, Armstrong TM. 1986. Medical response to a natural disaster: the Barrie tornado. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 134:767-769.


3. Uyeda S, Nagao T, and Kamogawa M. 2009. Short-term earthquake prediction: current status of seismo-electromagnetics. Tectonophysics, 470: 205-213.

4. Mohajer, A., Eyles, N. and Rogojina, C. 1992. Neotectonic faulting in metropolitan Toronto: implications for earthquake hazard assessment in the Lake Ontario region. Geology, 20: 1003-1006.

5. Satake, K, Shimazaki, K, Tsuji, Y. and Ueda, K. 1996. Time and size of a giant earthquake in Cascadia inferred from Japanese tsunami records of January 1700. Nature, 379: 246-249.


6. Borrero JC. 2005. Field data and satellite imagery of tsunami effects in Banda Aceh. Science, 308: 1596.

7. Liu, PLF et al. 2005. Observations by the international tsunami survey team in Sri Lanka. Science, 308:1595.

8. Merrifield, MA et al. 2005. Tide gauge observations of the Indian Ocean tsunami, December 26, 2004. Geophysical Research Letters, 32: L09603.

9. Paris R, et al. 2009. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia). Geomorphology, 104: 59-72.


10. Kling, GW et al. 2005. Degassing Lakes Nyos and Monoun: defusing certain disaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102:14,185-14,190.

11. Oppenheimer, C. 2003. Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815. Progress in Physical Geography, 27: 230-259.

12. Jones N. 2010. Battle to degas deadly lakes continues. Nature, 466: 1033.

13. Luterbacher J., and Pfister C. 2015. The year without a summer. Nature Geoscience, 8: 246-248.

Mass Movements

14. Huabin, W. et al. 2005. GIS-based landslide hazard assessment: a overview. Progress in Physical Geography, 29: 548-567.


15. Pitlick, J. 1997. A regional perspective of the hydrology of the 1993 Mississippi River basin floods. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 87: 135-151.

16. Buttle JM, et al. 2016. Flood processes in Canada: Regional and Special Aspects. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 41: 7-30.

17. Sandink D. 2016. Urban flooding and ground-related homes in Canada: an overview. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 9:208-223.

Karst and Sinkholes

18. Gutierrez F., Cooper AH, and Johnson KS. 2008. Identification, prediction, and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas. Environmental Geology, 53: 1007-1022.

Thunderstorms and Hail

19. Villarini G, Smith J. 2013. Spatial and temporal variability of cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental U.S. during the period 1995-2010. Atmospheric Research, 124: 137-148.


20. Cusack, S. 2014. Increased tornado hazard in large metropolitan areas. Atmospheric Research, 149: 255-262.

21. Tippett MK, Lepore C., Cohen JE. 2016. More tornadoes in the most extreme US tornado outbreaks. Science, 354: 1419-1423.

22. Etkin, D, Brun, SE, Shabbar A, Joe P. 2001. Tornado climatology of Canada revisited: tornado activity during different phases of ENSO. International Journal of Climatology, 21: 915-938.


23. Bender MA, et al. 2010. Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science, 327: 454-458.

24. Vecchi GA, and Villarini G. 2014. Next season’s hurricanes. Science, 343:618-619.

Blizzards, Cold, Lake Effect Snow and Winter Hazards

25. Cortinas Jr. JV, Bernstein BC, Robbins CC, and Strapp JW. 2004. An analysis of freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and ice pellets across the United States and Canada: 1976-1990. Weather and Forecasting, 19:377-390.

26. Armenakis C, Nirupama N. 2014. Urban impacts of ice storms: Toronto December 2013. Natural Hazards, 74: 1291-1298.

Mass Extinctions

27. Richards MA, et al. 2015. Triggering of the largest Deccan eruptions by the Chicxulub impact. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 127: 1507-1520.